Chest Tube Insertion Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

If fluid or air accumulates in the pleural space, the negative subatmospheric pressure becomes positive, and the lungs will collapse. Chest tube insertion can help drain the pleural space, enable optimal lung expansion, and reestablish negative pressure.  A thoracostomy involves inserting a flexible tube through the chest wall and into the pleural space. Chest tubes … Read more


Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that primarily affects children but can also infect adults, mimicking the common cold. Although the symptoms are mild in most cases, severe lung infections may occur, requiring hospitalization. It can take 4 to 6 days for the symptoms to appear after exposure, and the illness can … Read more


Emphysema Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Emphysema is a lung disease that gradually damages the air sacs (alveoli). Over time, the sacs weaken and rupture, resulting in a reduction of the surface area of the lungs and the amount of oxygen reaching the bloodstream, which results in dyspnea. Gradually, damage to the alveoli causes the lungs to overfill, making breathing increasingly … Read more


Tuberculosis Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mainly affects the lungs but may affect other organs. TB is an airborne disease spread through tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes.  TB can be cured and prevented but continues to be a global health crisis, especially for … Read more


Bronchitis Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by the inflammation and accumulation of mucus in the lower respiratory tract, specifically the bronchioles. This condition can either be acute or chronic.  Acute bronchitis is a common condition that usually develops from a cold or other respiratory infection and resolves within 7 to 10 days without lasting effects. … Read more


Pulmonary Edema Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pulmonary edema is an accumulation of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs that causes disturbances in gas exchange. Cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema are the two broad categories of this condition. Cardiogenic: Blood that enters through veins from the lung cannot be pumped out by the left ventricle of the heart. A sudden increase … Read more


Pneumothorax Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pneumothorax or collapsed lung is caused by air leaking into the pleural cavity. In a normal lung, negative pressure exists between the visceral and parietal pleura or the pleural space. This pleural space contains minimal fluid that serves as lubrication when the tissues move. When air enters the pleural space, changes to the pressure will … Read more


Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Dyspnea often called shortness of breath (SOB), is used to describe difficult or labored breathing often with an increased respiratory rate. Shortness of breath is not a disease but a symptom. Dyspnea can be acute or chronic depending on the causative factor. Related factors include: Shortness of breath (SOB) is the feeling of running out … Read more


Acute Respiratory Failure Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Acute respiratory failure occurs when there is inadequate oxygenation, ventilation, or both. It can be classified as hypoxemic or hypercapnic.  Hypoxemic respiratory failure is the inadequate exchange of oxygen between the pulmonary capillaries and the alveoli. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) will be less than 60 mmHg with a normal or low partial … Read more


Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a progressive form of acute respiratory failure characterized by dyspnea, decreased pulmonary compliance, and hypoxemia.  ARDS often develops after another illness or injury such as sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, pneumonia, aspiration, smoke inhalation, near drowning, and severe trauma or shock states. Despite the different causes of ARDS, the … Read more