Pulmonary Edema Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pulmonary edema is an accumulation of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs that causes disturbances in gas exchange. Cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema are the two broad categories of this condition. Cardiogenic: Blood that enters through veins from the lung cannot be pumped out by the left ventricle of the heart. A sudden increase … Read more

Pneumothorax Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pneumothorax or collapsed lung is caused by air leaking into the pleural cavity. In a normal lung, negative pressure exists between the visceral and parietal pleura or the pleural space. This pleural space contains minimal fluid that serves as lubrication when the tissues move. When air enters the pleural space, changes to the pressure will … Read more

Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Dyspnea often called shortness of breath (SOB), is used to describe difficult or labored breathing often with an increased respiratory rate. Shortness of breath is not a disease but a symptom. Dyspnea can be acute or chronic depending on the causative factor. Related factors include: Shortness of breath (SOB) is the feeling of running out … Read more

Acute Respiratory Failure Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Acute respiratory failure occurs when there is inadequate oxygenation, ventilation, or both. It can be classified as hypoxemic or hypercapnic.  Hypoxemic respiratory failure is the inadequate exchange of oxygen between the pulmonary capillaries and the alveoli. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) will be less than 60 mmHg with a normal or low partial … Read more

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a progressive form of acute respiratory failure characterized by dyspnea, decreased pulmonary compliance, and hypoxemia.  ARDS often develops after another illness or injury such as sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, pneumonia, aspiration, smoke inhalation, near drowning, and severe trauma or shock states. Despite the different causes of ARDS, the … Read more

Pleural Effusion Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pleural effusion is characterized by the accumulation of excess fluid between the lining of the chest wall and the lining of the lungs, known as the pleural space. Normally, there is a minimal amount of fluid in the pleural space that acts as lubrication to facilitate breathing.  The seriousness of the condition will depend on … Read more

Cystic Fibrosis Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare, genetic, and progressive disease that damages the lungs, digestive system, and causes further complications to other organs. Cystic fibrosis is normally diagnosed as a newborn. There is no cure for CF and patients usually do not live past their 50s.  Mutations to the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) … Read more

Asthma Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Asthma is a chronic condition affecting the lungs. When in contact with a trigger, the muscles around the airways constrict and inflammation and mucus in the airways make breathing difficult, known as an asthma attack. There is no cure for asthma, and untreated asthma attacks can be life-threatening, but there are many effective treatments that … Read more

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term that also includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD causes the airways of the lungs to become narrow due to inflammation, mucus, or other damage. This affects the ability to breathe normally and often results in shortness of breath, especially on exertion. COPD often occurs from smoking … Read more

Pneumonia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by a bacteria or virus. In healthy individuals, pneumonia is not usually life-threatening and does not require hospitalization. Those at higher risk, such as the very young or old, patients with compromised immune systems, or who already have a respiratory comorbidity, may require inpatient care and treatment.  … Read more