Tracheostomy: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

A tracheostomy or tracheotomy is a surgical incision of the front of the neck into the trachea to open the airway. A tracheostomy tube is placed into the opening and may be connected to a mechanical ventilator or another oxygen delivery device. The term “trach” is used as an abbreviation. Overview If the normal breathing … Read more

Chest Tube Insertions: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

If fluid or air accumulates in the pleural space, the negative subatmospheric pressure becomes positive, and the lungs will collapse. Chest tube insertion (thoracostomy) can help drain the pleural space, enable optimal lung expansion, and reestablish negative pressure. Chest Tube Procedure A thoracostomy involves inserting a flexible tube through the chest wall and into the … Read more

RSV: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

RSV, or respiratory syncytial virus, is a common respiratory virus that primarily affects children but can also infect adults, mimicking the common cold. Although the symptoms are mild in most cases, severe lung infections may occur, requiring hospitalization. Since a mild RSV infection is similar to the common cold, supportive treatment at home is usually … Read more

Emphysema: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Emphysema is a lung disease that gradually damages the air sacs (alveoli). Over time, the sacs weaken and rupture, reducing the surface area of the lungs and the amount of oxygen reaching the bloodstream, which results in dyspnea. Gradually, damage to the alveoli causes the lungs to overfill, making breathing increasingly difficult. The alveoli won’t … Read more

Tuberculosis: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mainly affects the lungs but may affect other organs. TB is an airborne disease spread through tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes. TB can be cured and prevented, but continues to be a global health crisis, especially for … Read more

Bronchitis: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the lower respiratory tract, specifically the bronchioles. This condition can either be acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis is a common condition that usually develops from a cold or other respiratory infection and resolves within 7 to 10 days without lasting effects. Acute bronchitis may manifest with … Read more

Pulmonary Edema: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Pulmonary edema is an accumulation of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs that causes disturbances in gas exchange. Cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema are the two main types of this condition. Cardiogenic: Blood that enters through veins from the lungs cannot be pumped out by the left heart ventricle. A sudden increase in the … Read more

Pneumothorax: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Pneumothorax or collapsed lung is caused by air leaking into the pleural cavity. In a normal lung, negative pressure exists between the visceral and parietal pleura or the pleural space. This pleural space contains minimal fluid that serves as lubrication when the tissues move. When air enters the pleural space, changes to the pressure will … Read more

Dyspnea: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Dyspnea, often called shortness of breath (SOB), describes difficult or labored breathing, often with an increased respiratory rate. Shortness of breath is the feeling of running out of breath and not being able to breathe in and out deeply or quickly enough. Someone may describe it as being unable to “catch their breath.” Dyspnea is … Read more

Acute Respiratory Failure: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Acute respiratory failure occurs when there is inadequate oxygenation, ventilation (carbon dioxide elimination), or both. It can be classified as hypoxemic or hypercapnic. Hypoxemic respiratory failure describes inadequate oxygen exchange between the pulmonary capillaries and the alveoli. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) will be less than 60 mmHg with a normal or low … Read more