Kidney Stones Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Kidney stones or renal calculi are hard deposits formed from minerals and salts in the kidneys that cause pain and complications as they move through the urinary tract. The different types of kidney stones include calcium stones from calcium oxalate, struvite stones that form due to urinary tract infection, uric acid stones that form when … Read more

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) or kidney failure happens when the kidneys fail to filter toxic waste and fluid that builds up in the body.  Kidney damage develops over months or years due to various causes. These conditions include:  As ESRD progresses, the patient may present with the following signs and symptoms: Chronic kidney disease is … Read more

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Benign prostatic hyperplasia or hypertrophy (BPH) is a gradual enlargement of the prostate gland (hyperplasia) with an increase in the size of the cells (hypertrophy). The breakdown of the balance between cellular proliferation and cell death results in excess prostate cells, causing BPH.  As men age, the prostate grows. The urethra runs through the prostate … Read more

Urosepsis Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

When a urinary tract infection is left untreated, it can spread systemically, leading to urosepsis, causing organ failure and death. Urosepsis is sepsis due to an infection of the urinary tract, bladder, or kidneys. Nearly a quarter of sepsis cases occur from a urogenital infection. Symptoms of urosepsis depend on the infected part of the … Read more

Hematuria Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Hematuria is the term used to describe the presence of blood in the urine. Gross hematuria is urine that appears pink, red, or cola-colored. Sometimes the blood cannot be visualized but is found through a urinalysis called microscopic hematuria. Hematuria itself is not painful; however, other associated symptoms and causes can cause pain. Blood in … Read more

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD/CRF) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) or Chronic renal failure (CRF) is characterized by a progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function.  Since the kidneys are highly adaptive organs, kidney disease is often not identified right away until there is already a considerable loss of nephrons. Patients with CRF are often asymptomatic and early symptoms may not … Read more

Pyelonephritis Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidneys and is caused by a bacterial infection of the lower urinary tract, such as a urinary tract infection.  Escherichia coli is considered the most common organism causing pyelonephritis.  Pyelonephritis can be categorized as acute or chronic. Acute pyelonephritis is referred to as an active bacterial infection of the … Read more

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as Acute Renal Failure (ARF) occurs when the kidneys lose their filtering ability resulting in the build-up of waste products in the blood. This condition develops rapidly, in hours or days, and is common in critically ill patients.  This condition affects other organs in the body if not treated … Read more

Urinary Tract Infection Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the result of pathogens invading the urethra, bladder, and/or kidneys. They are one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. When this type of infection occurs as a result of urinary catheterization it is known as a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI.) Many guidelines exist to help prevent nosocomial UTIs and … Read more