Hypocalcemia & Hypercalcemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Calcium is an electrolyte necessary for numerous cellular and enzymatic processes. 99% of the total amount of calcium in the body is found in the skeleton, which makes sense given that it is a crucial part of bone ossification. Soft tissues and extracellular fluids contain the other 1%. Calcium is vital for bone structure and … Read more


Leukemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Leukemia refers to a group of cancers affecting the blood and other blood-forming tissues of the lymphatic system, bone marrow, and spleen. Leukemia is the most common childhood cancer but can occur in all age groups.  Like other cancers, leukemia results from a mutation in the DNA of cells. Leukemia may occur from a combination … Read more


Sickle Cell Anemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Sickle cell anemia affects the oxygen-carrying blood cells, known as red blood cells (RBCs). Round, healthy RBCs transport oxygen to every body part and organ system. RBCs typically have a round shape and are flexible, so they may readily pass through blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia though, RBCs are rigid and sticky giving them … Read more


Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD/PAD) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), also known as peripheral artery disease (PAD), is a condition characterized by slow and progressive narrowing of the arteries of the extremities.  This condition stems from structural damage in the blood vessels often caused by atherosclerosis. Additional risk factors include: Diabetes  Hypertension  Hyperlipidemia Obesity Smoking Increasing age, over 50 years old … Read more


Hyperglycemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Hyperglycemia, a condition that is often associated with diabetes, means high blood glucose. This condition occurs when the body is not able to use insulin properly.  A blood glucose level over 125 mg/dL may be considered hyperglycemic while fasting, and over 180 mg/dL after eating.  Hyperglycemia may be caused by various conditions including type 1 … Read more


Hypokalemia & Hyperkalemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

In order to function properly, the body requires several electrolytes, one of which is potassium. The majority of potassium is stored in the intracellular compartment. While some can be found in the bones, liver, and red blood cells, 98% is found in the muscle cells. Potassium regulates fluid and facilitates muscular contraction and nerve activity. … Read more


Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Sodium is an electrolyte that helps maintain the volume and concentration of extracellular fluid and affects water distribution between intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. It is vital in the generation and transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractility, and the regulation of acid-base balance.  The ratio of sodium to water is reflected by the serum sodium … Read more


Blood Transfusion Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Blood primarily functions as a main transporter of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products to and from the different parts and organs of the body. Blood and blood products may be transfused to a patient in a procedure referred to as blood transfusion. This potentially life-saving procedure helps replace blood lost due to injury or surgery, … Read more


Hypoglycemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose. Patients who have diabetes may have episodes of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia due to the body’s inability to produce or regulate insulin. Hypoglycemia is most likely to occur in diabetic patients due to the misadministration of insulin.  Hypoglycemia can also occur in patients who are not diabetic due to causes such … Read more


Hyperlipidemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Hyperlipidemia is the medical term for high cholesterol. Cholesterol causes plaque formation in the arteries reducing blood flow and oxygen throughout the body. Plaque buildup and hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) can cause chest pain, heart attack, stroke, blood clots, and poor circulation.  Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is known as the “bad” cholesterol and the … Read more