Tachycardia: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Tachycardia is the rapid pumping of the heart at a rate of more than 100 beats per minute. It is a typical response to exercise or stress. However, if the cause is unknown or left untreated, it may result in severe health conditions such as stroke, heart failure, or cardiac arrest. Types There are several … Read more

Bradycardia: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Bradycardia is an abnormally slow heart rhythm. A normal heart rate is between 60 to 100 beats per minute. With bradycardia, the rate is less than 60 beats per minute. Bradycardia results from an abnormality in the sinus node, the heart’s natural pacemaker. A disruption in the sinus node can cause slow or missed beats. … Read more

Tetralogy of Fallot: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital heart condition characterized by four defects: Because of these structural flaws, blood is poorly oxygenated when pumped to the rest of the body. Because the blood does not contain enough oxygen, infants may display a bluish discoloration (cyanosis) of the skin, nails, and lips. Tetralogy of Fallot is … Read more

Cardiomyopathy: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Cardiomyopathy is used to describe a disorder that affects the heart muscle. It is characterized by the thickening, stretching, and stiffening of the heart, affecting the ability of the heart to pump blood. Types of Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy can affect anyone at any age and may have no known cause. These are the three major types … Read more

Peripheral Artery/Vascular Disease: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), also known as peripheral artery disease (PAD), is a condition characterized by slow and progressive narrowing of the arteries of the extremities. This condition stems from structural damage in the blood vessels often caused by atherosclerosis when plaque blocks the flow of blood. Though PVD mainly affects the legs and feet, … Read more

Myocardial Infarction: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly referred to as a “heart attack”. Myocardial ischemia is inadequate perfusion to the myocardium that occurs from a partial or complete blockage of blood and oxygen to the heart. The major cause of a heart attack is coronary artery disease.  In an emergency, as the cells lose oxygen, ischemia (reduced … Read more

Pulmonary Embolism: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of one or more pulmonary arteries by a blood clot. Large emboli obstruct pulmonary blood flow, causing reduced oxygenation, reduced gas exchange, decreased perfusion, pulmonary tissue hypoxia, and even death. Most PEs occur due to deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities when a thrombus breaks off and … Read more

Chest Pain (Angina): Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Chest pain or angina is the discomfort a person experiences when the heart does not get enough oxygen. Chest pain is not a disease itself, but a symptom of an underlying cause. The pain felt in angina can be described as squeezing, dull, sharp, crushing, or burning. Severe chest pain may be described as extreme … Read more

Hypotension: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Hypotension is low blood pressure. Normal blood pressure (BP) for most adults is 120/80 mmHg. Blood pressure of less than 90/60 mmHg is considered hypotensive. Anything above 120/80 mmHg is considered elevated, and stage 1 hypertension is diagnosed at 130/80 mmHg. Hypotension is categorized according to the following: Poor cardiac output due to untreated hypotension … Read more

Coronary Artery Disease: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a term used to describe conditions that affect the arteries that provide nutrients, blood, and oxygen to the heart. Atherosclerosis, a known cause of CAD, is characterized by lipid deposits within the walls of the arteries. These plaques narrow arteries, obstructing blood flow. It increases the risk of angina and … Read more