Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

A diabetic foot ulcer is one of the most common complications diagnosed in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Anyone with diabetes mellitus can develop a foot ulcer resulting from poor glycemic control, peripheral vascular disease, underlying neuropathy, and poor foot care. Pathophysiology The development of a diabetic foot ulcer begins with a callus from neuropathy. … Read more

Metabolic Alkalosis: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Metabolic alkalosis occurs when the body contains excessive amounts of base or alkali. This occurs when there is a loss of acid or hydrogen or a gain in bicarbonate. A normal pH level is 7.35 – 7.45. An increase above this range is alkalosis. If bicarbonate (HCO3) increases or carbon dioxide (CO2) decreases, alkalosis will … Read more

Metabolic Acidosis: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Metabolic acidosis is characterized by an imbalance in the body’s acid-base balance and occurs when there is a buildup of acid in the blood. Causes include: The body attempts to compensate for this imbalance through the respiratory system by hyperventilation to blow off excess CO2 to raise the blood pH and readjust the bicarbonate to … Read more

Hypocalcemia & Hypercalcemia: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Calcium is an electrolyte necessary for numerous cellular and enzymatic processes. 99% of the total amount of calcium in the body is found in the skeleton and it is a crucial part of bone ossification. Soft tissues and extracellular fluids contain the other 1%. Calcium is vital for bone structure and integrity, muscle contraction, blood … Read more

SIADH: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) occurs when the body releases excessive amounts of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), resulting in the retention of excess water in the body, causing hyponatremia. ADH is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored and released by the pituitary gland. It plays an essential role in various processes in the … Read more

Hypothyroidism: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland is underactive and does not produce enough hormones. The thyroid is a small gland at the front of the neck that resembles a butterfly. Thyroid hormones regulate how the body uses energy, which impacts almost every organ in the body, including the heart rate. People with hypothyroidism can be … Read more

Hyperglycemia: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Hyperglycemia, a condition that is often associated with diabetes, means high blood glucose. This condition occurs when the body is not able to use insulin properly. A blood glucose level over 125 mg/dL may be considered hyperglycemic while fasting, and over 180 mg/dL after eating.  Causes and Complications Hyperglycemia may be caused by various conditions … Read more

Hypokalemia & Hyperkalemia: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

In order to function properly, the body requires several electrolytes, one of which is potassium (Latin: kalium). The majority of potassium is stored in the intracellular compartment. While some can be found in the bones, liver, and red blood cells, 98% is found in the muscle cells. Potassium regulates fluid and facilitates muscular contraction and … Read more

Hyponatremia & Hypernatremia: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Sodium (Latin: natrium) is an electrolyte that helps maintain the volume and concentration of extracellular fluid and affects water distribution between intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. It is vital in the generation and transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractility, and the regulation of acid-base balance. The ratio of sodium to water is reflected by the … Read more

Malnutrition: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Nutrition is the process by which an organism uses food to support its life. Nutrients acquired from foods and fluids are used for the body’s cellular metabolism. Optimal nutrition means having adequate vitamins and nutrients to support the body’s processes. Malnutrition occurs due to inadequate, excessive, or imbalanced nutritional intake. This includes being underweight or … Read more