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Kathleen Salvador, MSN, RN


Shortness of Breath (Dyspnea) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Dyspnea often called shortness of breath (SOB), is used to describe difficult or labored breathing often with an increased respiratory rate. Shortness of breath is not a disease but a symptom. Dyspnea can be acute or chronic depending on the causative factor. Related factors include: Shortness of breath (SOB) is the feeling of running out … Read more

Parkinson’s Disease Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative condition caused by the loss of dopamine, which disrupts the suppression of excitatory impulses and causes the extrapyramidal system to malfunction. It is a chronic, disabling condition that worsens over time. Falls, poor self-care, dysfunctional body systems, and depression can result from debilitation.  Although the exact cause of Parkinson’s … Read more

Hypokalemia & Hyperkalemia Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

In order to function properly, the body requires several electrolytes, one of which is potassium. The majority of potassium is stored in the intracellular compartment. While some can be found in the bones, liver, and red blood cells, 98% is found in the muscle cells. Potassium regulates fluid and facilitates muscular contraction and nerve activity. … Read more

Wound Care & Infection Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

A wound is any skin breakdown or tissue injury that disrupts structural integrity and leads to functional loss. Compromised integrity of the skin, mucous membranes, or organs can result in a wound and infection. Wounds may be acute or chronic as well as closed (under the skin’s surface such as with hematomas) or open due … Read more

Myocardial Infarction (STEMI & NSTEMI) Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly referred to as a “heart attack”. Myocardial ischemia is inadequate perfusion to the myocardium that occurs from a partial or complete blockage of blood and oxygen to the heart. The major cause of a heart attack is coronary artery disease.  In an emergency, as the cells lose oxygen, ischemia (reduced … Read more

Heparin Nursing Considerations & Patient Teachings

Heparin, an anticoagulant, is considered a high-alert medication. It reduces blood’s capacity to clot and prevents dangerous clots from forming in arteries. Although commonly mistaken as a blood thinner, it doesn’t actually thin the blood. Blood clots that have already formed cannot be dissolved by heparin, but they may be prevented from growing and posing … Read more

Lisinopril Nursing Considerations & Patient Teachings

Lisinopril is used to treat high blood pressure. Decreasing high blood pressure reduces the risk of heart attacks, kidney diseases, and strokes. Lisinopril is used to treat heart failure and increases survival rates following a heart attack. Lisinopril facilitates smooth blood flow by dilating blood vessels. Generic names: Lisinopril Brand names: Apo-Lisinopril, Prinivil, Qbrelis, Zestril … Read more

Gabapentin Nursing Considerations & Patient Teachings

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant used in the prevention of partial seizures. It is frequently used for neuropathic pain including diabetic neuropathy, radiculopathy, shingles, and trigeminal neuralgia. Generic names: Gabapentin/Gabapentin Enacarbil Brand names: Gralise, Neurontin, Horizant Pharmacologic class: 1-amino-methyl cyclohexoneacetic acid Therapeutic class: Anticonvulsant Mechanism of action: Gabapentin helps to stabilize cell membranes by changing cation … Read more

Albuterol Nursing Considerations & Patient Teachings

Albuterol (also referred to as Salbutamol) is a fast-acting bronchodilator that prevents and manages wheezing and shortness of breath brought on by breathing difficulties (such as asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). It is also used to prevent exercise-induced asthma. Albuterol relaxes the airways’ muscles, allows them to open, and facilitates breathing. Generic names: Albuterol … Read more

Atorvastatin Nursing Considerations & Patient Teachings

Atorvastatin is a statin medication. It reduces the cholesterol that may accumulate on the artery walls and obstruct blood flow to the heart, brain, and other areas of the body. Atorvastatin prevents heart diseases, stroke, and heart attacks along with proper diet and lifestyle modifications. Generic names: Atorvastatin Calcium Brand names: Lipitor Pharmacologic class: HMG-CoA … Read more