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Kathleen Salvador, MSN, RN

Spinal Cord Injury Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

The spinal cord transmits nerve signals from the brain to the rest of the body. It is enclosed and safeguarded by layers of tissue known as the meninges and a column of vertebrae (spinal bones). Damage to the spinal cord is called spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI may be permanent and life-threatening. Depending on the … Read more

Hypocalcemia & Hypercalcemia: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Calcium is an electrolyte necessary for numerous cellular and enzymatic processes. 99% of the total amount of calcium in the body is found in the skeleton and it is a crucial part of bone ossification. Soft tissues and extracellular fluids contain the other 1%. Calcium is vital for bone structure and integrity, muscle contraction, blood … Read more

Tetralogy of Fallot: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital heart condition characterized by four defects: Because of these structural flaws, blood is poorly oxygenated when pumped to the rest of the body. Because the blood does not contain enough oxygen, infants may display a bluish discoloration (cyanosis) of the skin, nails, and lips. Tetralogy of Fallot is … Read more

Anaphylaxis: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Anaphylaxis is an acute hypersensitivity reaction with potentially life-threatening consequences. It is often a sudden, multi-system, widespread allergic reaction. Anaphylaxis frequently results in death if untreated because it quickly progresses to respiratory failure.  Anaphylactic reactions have traditionally been classified as Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated responses, whereas anaphylactoid reactions are IgE-independent responses. The clinical condition and treatment … Read more

Stress Overload Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plans

Stress is the body’s response to dangerous circumstances, whether they are actual or only perceived. When a person feels threatened, the body experiences a hormonal change that enables it to respond and prevent harm. This stress response, otherwise called the “fight-or-flight” response, happens when the body prepares to defend itself and reacts by increasing the … Read more

C-Section: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

A Cesarean section (C-section) is the surgical removal of the baby from the abdomen. C-sections may be elective or required due to emergency complications. There are several reasons a baby cannot or should not be delivered vaginally. For instance, a Cesarean delivery is frequently advised if the patient has a history of uterine rupture or … Read more

Sickle Cell Anemia: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Sickle cell anemia, also known as sickle cell disease (SCD), affects the oxygen-carrying red blood cells (RBCs). Healthy RBCs transport oxygen to every body part and organ system. RBCs are typically round and flexible, so they may readily pass through blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, RBCs are rigid and sticky, giving them the appearance … Read more

Pulmonary Edema Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Pulmonary edema is an accumulation of fluid in the alveoli of the lungs that causes disturbances in gas exchange. Cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema are the two broad categories of this condition. Cardiogenic: Blood that enters through veins from the lung cannot be pumped out by the left ventricle of the heart. A sudden increase … Read more

Osteomyelitis Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone. Bones may become prone to infection from trauma, surgery, ischemia, or bacteria from surrounding tissues. Osteomyelitis can result from a systemic bacterial infection that extends to the bones (sepsis or bacteremia). This form typically affects a child’s long bones, such as the femur or humerus. Adult cases of … Read more

Hypothyroidism: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland is underactive and does not produce enough hormones. The thyroid is a small gland at the front of the neck that resembles a butterfly. Thyroid hormones regulate how the body uses energy, which impacts almost every organ in the body, including the heart rate. People with hypothyroidism can be … Read more