Knee Replacement Surgery Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

The knees are one of the most complex joints in the body. They support most of the body’s weight, making it prone to injuries and overuse.  Knee replacement surgery is a procedure that replaces parts of an injured knee joint to relieve knee discomfort and resolve issues with mobility and ambulation. Artificial plastic or metal … Read more

Hematuria: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Hematuria is the term used to describe the presence of blood in the urine. Gross hematuria is urine that appears pink, red, or cola-colored. Sometimes the blood cannot be visualized but is found through a urinalysis called microscopic hematuria. Hematuria itself is not painful; however, other associated symptoms and causes can cause pain. Blood in … Read more

Metabolic Alkalosis: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Metabolic alkalosis occurs when the body contains excessive amounts of base or alkali. This occurs when there is a loss of acid or hydrogen or a gain in bicarbonate. A normal pH level is 7.35 – 7.45. An increase above this range is alkalosis. If bicarbonate (HCO3) increases or carbon dioxide (CO2) decreases, alkalosis will … Read more

Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Nursing Diagnoses & Care Plans

Hyperemesis gravidarum is a condition affecting pregnant women which causes intractable nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. While the exact cause remains unclear, this condition is thought to be caused by rapidly rising hormone levels like HCG and estrogen during the first trimester. Another potential cause may include an increased incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), … Read more

Epistaxis Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Epistaxis or nosebleeds are common and self-limiting, with only about 10% requiring emergent treatment. There are two types of epistaxis: Children between the ages of 2-10 may have minor nosebleeds due to picking their noses or sticking objects into their noses. Later in life, patients between the ages of 45-65 have an increased risk of … Read more

Chemotherapy Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Chemotherapy, also referred to as antineoplastic therapy, is a treatment that utilizes cytotoxic chemicals to kill cancer cells. This treatment is a mainstay for cancer, especially for solid tumors and hematologic cancers like leukemia and lymphomas. Chemotherapy aims to reduce or eliminate the number of cancer cells in the primary and metastatic tumor sites. Chemotherapy … Read more

Bowel Perforation: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Bowel perforation, a serious medical condition requiring emergency medical care, occurs when a hole develops in the bowel wall. This can cause leakage of gastric acid or stool into the peritoneal cavity. If left untreated, it can result in internal bleeding, peritonitis, permanent damage to the intestines, sepsis, and death. Nursing Process Immediate medical care … Read more

Sleep Apnea Nursing Diagnosis & Care Plan

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by the repeated cessation and resumption of breathing during sleep, preventing the body from getting adequate oxygen. There are two types of sleep apnea: Clinical manifestations of sleep apnea include: The following are risk factors for sleep apnea: Sleep apnea is diagnosed through a sleep study, medical history, … Read more

Peritonitis: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Peritonitis is a serious condition that results from a generalized or localized inflammatory process in the peritoneum (membrane lining the abdominal cavity) with a primary or secondary cause. Primary peritonitis is characterized by blood-borne organisms entering the peritoneal cavity. Secondary peritonitis, the more common type, occurs when abdominal organs rupture or perforate and release their … Read more

Metabolic Acidosis: Nursing Diagnoses, Care Plans, Assessment & Interventions

Metabolic acidosis is characterized by an imbalance in the body’s acid-base balance and occurs when there is a buildup of acid in the blood. Causes include: The body attempts to compensate for this imbalance through the respiratory system by hyperventilation to blow off excess CO2 to raise the blood pH and readjust the bicarbonate to … Read more